The ethnic and religious layout of the residential areas of the capital encouraged this process, and East and West Beirut were increasingly transformed into what was in effect Christian and Muslim Beirut. It is estimated that in two weeks 300 people were killed. Days later, Assad sent a message to the United States asking them not to interfere if he were to send troops into Lebanon. On 22 January 1976, Syrian President Hafez al-Assad brokered a truce between the two sides, while covertly beginning to move Syrian troops into Lebanon under the guise of the Palestine Liberation Army in order to bring the PLO back under Syrian influence and prevent the disintegration of Lebanon. The Lebanese refer to the 17- year civil war, Israeli invasion, car bombings, Syrian occupation and every other calamity that struck this country on and after April 13, 1975, the official debut of the Lebanese civil war, as “The Events”. On 3 June 1982, the Abu Nidal Organization, a splinter group of Fatah, attempted to assassinate Israeli ambassador Shlomo Argov in London. On 11 March 1978, eleven Fatah fighters landed on a beach in northern Israel and proceeded to hijack two buses full of passengers on the Haifa – Tel-Aviv road, shooting at passing vehicles in what became known as the Coastal Road massacre. ", "Ex-militia fighters in post-war Lebanon", "National Council of Arab Americans (NCA)", "In the Spotlight: PKK (A.k.a KADEK) Kurdish Worker's Party", "Abdullah Öcalan en de ontwikkeling van de PKK", "Lebanon's Legacy of Political Violence: A Mapping of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lebanon, 1975–2008", "133 Statement to the press by Prime Minister Begin on the massacre of Israelis on the Haifa – Tel Aviv Road- 12 March 1978", "United Nations Security Council Resolution 508", "United Nations Security Council Resolution 509", United Nations Security Council Draft Resolution of 8 June 1982 (Spain), "United Nations Security Council Revised Draft Resolution of 25 June 1982 (France)", "Obituary: Elie Hobeika | World news | The Guardian | Mostyn, Trevor, Friday 25 January 2002", "The Ordeal for Lebanon: 14 Years and 7 Months", "After 2 Decades, Scars of Lebanon's Civil War Block Path to Dialogue", "The Road to Peace: Paintings in Times of War, 1975–1991", "Face of War Pervades New Beirut Art Center", The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians, Lebanese civil war from 13 April 1975 to 13 October 1990 & War on Lebanon 2006 Full of pictures, The Lebanese civil war and the Taef agreement, A 15-episode documentary about the Lebanese Civil War, 1975–1990, Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lebanese_Civil_War&oldid=991269281, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Asia, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from October 2014, All articles needing additional references, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with minor POV problems from April 2014, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Lebanon, as it is now, became a country in 1943 after gaining independence from France. https://www.britannica.com/event/Lebanese-Civil-War. August 26: The national assembly grants amnesty for all crimes committed during the civil war. The Armenian Dashnak militia defeated the Kataeb attacks and retained control. Lesser roles were played by the fractious Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF) and another split-off from the PFLP, the Syrian-aligned Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC). The Syrian government could also count on the Syrian brigades of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA), formally but not functionally the PLO's regular army. All this led to Palestinian refugees crossing the border into Lebanon. Update : thanks for the websites but i read them and i really dont understand each website has different things but they add up to the war. The most significant Israeli intervention during the course of the Lebanese Civil War, however, was the invasion that began on June 6, 1982. The southern states called themselves the Confederate States of America. The Lebanese army defeats the PLO and takes over the southern port of Sidon. The agreement also provided for the deployment of a multinational force composed of U.S. Marines along with French, Italian and British units. Approximately 900,000 people, representing one-fifth of the pre-war population, were displaced from their homes. , Alliance with Maronite militias and invasion, Bombings against US targets and foundation of Hezbollah, Mays, Terry M. Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping. Yugoslav Wars (1991-1995) – The Yugoslav wars consisted of the Croatian War and the Bosnian War. A Long and Costly War . Under the leadership of the Jumblatt family, first Kamal Jumblatt (the LNM leader) and then his son Walid, the Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي, al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) served as an effective Druze militia, building excellent ties to the Soviet Union mainly, and with Syria upon the withdrawal of Israel to the south of the country. Hezbollah's original aims included the establishment of an Islamic state in Lebanon. On 8 March 1989 Aoun started the blockade of illegal ports of Muslim militias, and this touched off bloody exchanges of artillery fire that lasted for half a year. The virtual collapse of the Lebanese Army in February 1984, following the defection of many Muslim and Druze units to militias, was a major blow to the government. The post-war occupation of the country by Syrian Arab Republic was particularly politically disadvantageous to the Maronite population as most of their leadership was driven into exile, or had been assassinated or jailed.. South Lebanon's population is mainly Shi'a and the Palestinians soon set up base there for their attacks against the Israelis. “Political strife and instability were endemic to Lebanon… they [France] made Lebanon what it was: a country with no … Israel carried out a retaliatory aerial attack on PLO and PFLP targets in West Beirut that led to over 100 casualties. With the U.S. Marines looking ready to withdraw, Syria and Muslim groups stepped up pressure on Gemayel. They were followed by other southern states. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Lebanese Civil War, 1975 to 1978 . 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